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Agenda21 – From Wikipedia

Agenda 21 From Wikipedia ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agenda_21 )

Agenda 21 is an action plan of the United Nations (UN) related to sustainable development and was an outcome of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992. It is a comprehensive blueprint of action to be taken globally, nationally and locally by organizations of the UN, governments, and major groups in every area in which humans directly affect the environment.


1 Development of Agenda 21

2 Rio+5

3 The Johannesburg Summit

4 Implementation

5 Structure and contents

5.1 Section I: Social and Economic Dimensions

5.2 Section II: Conservation and Management of Resources for Development

5.3 Section III: Strengthening the Role of Major Groups

5.4 Section IV: Means of Implementation

6 Local Agenda 21

7 Agenda 21 for culture

8 Criticism

9 See also

10 References

11 External links

Development of Agenda 21The full text of Agenda 21 was revealed at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Earth Summit), held in Rio de Janeiro on June 13, 1992, where 178 governments voted to adopt the program. The final text was the result of drafting, consultation and negotiation, beginning in 1989 and culminating at the two-week conference. The number 21 refers to an agenda for the 21st century. It may also refer to the number on the UN’s agenda at this particular summit.

Rio+5In 1997, the General Assembly of the UN held a special session to appraise five years of progress on the implementation of Agenda 21 (Rio +5). The Assembly recognized progress as ‘uneven’ and identified key trends including increasing globalization, widening inequalities in income and a continued deterioration of the global environment. A new General Assembly Resolution (S-19/2) promised further action.

The Johannesburg Summit.  The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, agreed at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (Earth Summit 2002) affirmed UN commitment to ‘full implementation’ of Agenda 21, alongside achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and other international agreements.

Implementation.  The Commission on Sustainable Development acts as a high level forum on sustainable development and has acted as preparatory committee for summits and sessions on the implementation of Agenda 21. The United Nations Division for Sustainable Development acts as the secretariat to the Commission and works ‘within the context of’ Agenda 21.

Implementation by member states remains essentially voluntary.

On June 09, 2011, United States’ President Barack H. Obama signed Presidential Executive Order #13575 – Establishment of the White House Rural Council, which provides federal funding for UN Agenda 21-style programs within the US.

Structure and contents.  There are 40 chapters in the Agenda 21, divided into four main sections.

Section I: Social and Economic Dimensions which deals with combating poverty, changing consumption patterns, promoting health, change population and sustainable settlement

Section II: Conservation and Management of Resources for Development Includes atmospheric protection, combating deforestation, protecting fragile environments, conservation of biological diversity (biodiversity), and control of pollution.

Section III: Strengthening the Role of Major Groups Includes the roles of children and youth, women, NGOs, local authorities, business and workers.

Section IV: Means of Implementation.  Implementation includes science, technology transfer, education, international institutions and financial mechanisms.

Local Agenda 21.  The implementation of Agenda 21 was intended to involve action at international, national, regional and local levels. Some national and state governments have legislated or advised that local authorities take steps to implement the plan locally, as recommended in Chapter 28 of the document. Such programmes are often known as ‘Local Agenda 21’ or ‘LA21’. [1]

Agenda 21 for culture.  During the first World Public Meeting on Culture, held in Porto Alegre in 2002, it came up the idea to draw up a document guidelines for local cultural policies, a document comparable to what the Agenda 21 meant in 1992 for the environment. [2]

The Agenda 21 for culture is the first document with worldwide mission that advocates establishing the groundwork of an undertaking by cities and local governments for cultural development.

Criticism. Agenda 21 has been criticized by libertarians, economic conservatives, and others in the United States (whose Congress has yet to ratify the Agenda) as top-down/authoritarian in nature, a threat to national sovereignty and needed industrial and technological development.[3]

See also


  1. Manchester Metropolitan University
  2. Agenda 21 for culture
  3. [1]

External links